Published On: Thu, Jul 20th, 2017

La serpiente más venenosa del mudo

La mamba negra es una de las serpientes más peligrosas y temidas en África, debido a su veneno potente, a su gran tamaño, y la ferocidad de sus ataques. Sin embargo los incidentes con humanos son poco frecuentes, dado que esta serpiente, prefiere evitarnos (seguramente esta en sus genes escapar de su mayor depredador).

La mamba negra utiliza su velocidad para escapar de las amenazas, no para cazar a sus presas. Su comportamiento es tímido y reservado, generalmente trata de escapar cuando se produce un enfrentamiento. Si una mamba negra se siente acorralada y su intento de ahuyentar al atacante falla puede inyectar grandes cantidades de veneno.

La mamba negra es una serpiente diurna. Aunque su nombre científico parece ser indicativo de que trepa a los árboles, la mamba negra raramente se puede encontrar en ellos. El veneno de la mamba negro se compone principalmente de neurotoxinas. Su mordedura inyecta de 100 a 120 mg de veneno en promedio, sin embargo, se puede inyectar hasta 400 mg .

La tasa de mortalidad de sus mordeduras se aproximan al 100%, a menos que la víctima se trate oportunamente con el suero antiofídico. Una mamba negra puede potencialmente matar a un ser humano dentro de los 20 minutos, pero la muerte ocurre generalmente después de 30 a 60 minutos. El factor de mortalidad depende de la salud, tamaño, edad, estado psicológico de la persona humana, la penetración de uno o dos colmillos, la cantidad de veneno inyectado, el lugar de la picadura, y la proximidad a los vasos sanguíneos principales. En la actualidad existe un polivalente antiofídico producido por el SAIMR (Instituto Africano del Sur para la Investigación Médica) para el tratamiento de todas las mordeduras mamba negra.

Fuentes

Black Mamba National Geographic

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